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Sandbox Access

Sandbox#

A Topology Instance of a Sandbox is created in the cloud platform and connected to the KYPO Base Infrastructure, which mainly consists of 2 servers and a network.

  • KYPO Head: The server where the KYPO platform is installed.
  • KYPO Proxy: The server is used only for SSH access to all sandboxes.
  • KYPO Base Network: The network where both servers and all sandboxes are connected through MAN (more about management nodes).

topology-instance-blank

Note

For clarity reasons, there are missing links from man-network to the left Router and left Host.

Sandbox Access#

Sandbox access is divided into two major categories:

  • Terminal Remote Access: Access to the remote sandbox node from the local command-line interface. It requires additional configuration. We differentiate two types based on privileges:
    • Management access is available for those who manage sandboxes or KYPO Cyber Range Platform (role instructor).
    • User access is provided for everyone else (role trainee).
  • Web-based Access: Access to the remote sandbox node through the KYPO portal in the web browser is available for everyone. It is simpler because it doesn’t require any additional configuration. We support two clients that provide that connection:

Terminal Remote Access#

Note

Windows users must install Git Bash or WSL. On Windows, all actions in Management access and User access to connect to the sandboxes have to be performed using the Git Bash or WSL console. Please note that creating the .ssh folder is not required. The’ Extract action’ will be created automatically using the unzip command.

Management Access#

Access to the sandbox nodes is through the KYPO Proxy, and a MAN node as jump hosts and a man-network.

  1. Download the SSH access zip file from Pool Overview page.

  2. Extract the ssh-access.zip file to the .ssh/ folder in your home directory.

    $ unzip ssh-access.zip -d ~/.ssh/
    

    Extracted files:

    • ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-management-config: the SSH configuration file.
    • ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-management-key: the pool management SSH private key.
    • ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-management-key.pub: the pool management SSH public key.

    Note

    The configuration file is generated for every sandbox of the pool.

  3. Connect to any virtual machine specified in the SSH configuration file except KYPO Proxy.

    • Connect directly to any virtual machine using SSH protocol, even a Windows machine, e.g.:

      $ ssh -F ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-management-config man
      
    • Connect to any virtual machine using software that supports communication over SOCKS5 proxy.
      First, create a local proxy on a port 12345:

      $ ssh -F ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-management-config -N -D 12345 man
      

      Then connect to a virtual machine specified in the SSH configuration file over socks5://localhost:12345 proxy.

    • If the communication software does not support SOCKS5 proxy like Windows RDP client,
      use local port forwarding to bind the virtual machine’s port to your localhost.
      For example, bind the virtual machine’s RDP server port 3389 to your local port 12345.
      Virtual machine IP is specified in the SSH configuration file.

      $ ssh -F ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-management-config -N -L 12345:<vm_ip>:3389 man
      

      Then use the RDP client and connect to a virtual machine using the localhost:12345 address.

User Access#

Access to the sandbox nodes is through the KYPO proxy, and a MAN node, as jump hosts and an accessible_by_user networks.

Sandbox definition set up

You will not be able to use this approach if you did not set up the sandbox definition correctly!

  • Set user access to networks in the sandbox definition file topology.yml, e.g., set an attribute accessible_by_user of the network to value True or leave it undefined as it is a default value. See Topology Definition.

  • Set user access to hosts connected to user-accessible networks, e.g., apply Ansible role kypo-user-access to specified hosts in the file provisioning/playbook.yml of the sandbox definition.

Warning

The SSH config file will be generated with the host’s directive User set to user-access, therefore setting variable kypo_user_access_username to value user-access modify the SSH config file later.

  1. Download the SSH access zip file from Training Level of the Linear Training Run page with topology visualization (in case of Adaptive Training Run, download it from the Training Phase).

  2. Extract the ssh-access.zip file to the ~/.ssh/ directory.

    $ unzip ssh-access.zip -d ~/.ssh/
    

    Extracted files:

    • ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-user-config: the SSH configuration file.
    • ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-user-key: the sandbox user SSH private key.
    • ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-user-key.pub: the sandbox user SSH public key.
  3. Connect to any virtual machine specified in the SSH configuration file except KYPO Proxy, MAN.

  • Connect directly to any virtual machine using SSH protocol, even a Windows machine, e.g.:

    $ ssh -F ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-user-config <vm_name>
    
  • Connect to any virtual machine using software that supports communication over SOCKS5 proxy.
    First, create a local proxy on a port 12345:

    $ ssh -F ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-user-config -N -D 12345 man
    

    Then connect to a virtual machine specified in the SSH configuration file over socks5://localhost:12345 proxy.

  • If the communication software does not support SOCKS5 proxy like Windows RDP client,
    use local port forwarding to bind the virtual machine’s port to your localhost.
    For example, bind the virtual machine’s RDP server port 3389 to your local port 12345.
    Virtual machine IP is specified in the SSH configuration file.

    $ ssh -F ~/.ssh/pool-id-ID-sandbox-id-ID-user-config -N -L 12345:<vm_ip>:3389 man
    

    Then use the RDP client and connect to a virtual machine using the localhost:12345 address.

Web-based Access#

Simple access to the sandbox node from within the web browser is available through the KYPO portal from the sandbox topology. An instructor can display the topology on the Pool Detail page, and for trainees, the topology is always displayed during a training run in training levels. Right-click on the selected network node (host or router) in the network topology will open the menu with the following options (see VM manipulation:

  • Open console: Opens web browser-based user interface using Spice client. This option is available for all routers and hosts, but it doesn’t support the Copy & paste feature, and the response from the machine may be slow, so it seems that the console is freezing. Therefore we are recommending using the other options to access the sandbox node.
  • Open CLI: Opens the command-line interface (CLI) in Apache Guacamole application using the SSH protocol. This option is available only for routers and hosts with Linux-based operating systems.
  • Open GUI: Opens graphical user interface (GUI) in Apache Guacamole application using the VNC or RDP protocol. This option can be available for all routers and hosts but depends on whether they are properly configured.

Credentials

A user must know the login credentials to access the sandbox node in all cases.

Spice#

As an alternative to VNC, OpenStack provides remote desktop access to guest virtual machines using the Simple Protocol for Independent Computing Environments (SPICE) protocol. Provides the command-line interface or graphical user interface depending the display manager is installed or not. When you connect to the Spice client, you will see the following console in a new browser tab.

Apache Guacamole#

An HTML5 web application supports graphical access to remote hosts directly in the browser. It is a clientless remote desktop gateway that supports standard protocols like VNC, RDP, and SSH. In the KYPO CRP, all the mentioned protocols can be used, but the following conditions must be satisfied:

  1. SSH (only Linux-based system): The target host must have allowed password authentication. This can be done by setting up the following parameter in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
    PasswordAuthentication yes
    
  2. VNC (only Linux-based system): Requires running VNC server with possible login option. Configuration of the VNC server may vary based on the OS type and its version. We have set up a VNC server on several types of OS by performing these steps.
  3. RDP (Windows): Requires enabled Remote Desktop that can be done by following these steps.

VNC & RDP

Besides the proper configuration, the image of the machines must have set the custom property owner_specified.openstack.gui_acess to true. Otherwise, the option Open GUI in the topology won’t be available.